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A crucial part of their creation lies in their architecture, which governs the nature of their programmable logic functionality and their programmable interconnect. FPGA architecture has a dramatic effect on the quality of the final device's speed performance, area efficiency and power consumption.
FPGA Architecture: Survey and Challenges - Now Foundations and Trends books
FPGA Architecture: Survey and Challenges reviews the historical development of programmable logic devices, the fundamental programming technologies that the programmability is built on, and then describes the basic understandings gleaned from research on architectures. FPGA Architecture: Survey and Challenges starts with a brief overview of programmable logic to provide a context for the subsequent sections which review the history of programmable logic, and the underlying programming technologies.
The following sections define the terminology of FPGA architecture, and then describe foundations and trends of logic block architecture and routing architecture including a discussion of power management techniques and related circuit design issues. It is also an excellent primer for senior or graduate-level students in electrical engineering or computer science.
FPGA Architecture Design and Toolset for Logic Implementation
Article :. The data paths, instruction set, register counts and memory interface are all fixed at the time of fabrication of the CPU.
That is, they are unchanging attributes of the processor and cannot be customized later. This is enabled by a bit-wise, fine-grained architectural model to realize computation.
FPGA Architecture for the Challenge
In order to better understand how FPGAs work, it is beneficial to comprehend their atomic units of computation. Although modern FPGAs have a wide variety of components, at their heart is a large array of replicated programmable look-up tables LUTs , flip-flops or registers and programmable wires called interconnect as seen in the figures below. Close up view of replicated tiles of the logic array and interconnect.
A LUT has a single bit output that is calculated based on the input signal values and the configurable table or memory entries as shown in the figure below. LUTs are typically constructed using an N:1 multiplexer shown in green in Figure 4b and an Nx1-bit memory shown in blue. The number of inputs of a LUT is calculated as the log base 2 of N.
This characteristic is illustrated in the figure below. LUTs are commonly chained or combined in series to implement larger Boolean equations.
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Examples of several but not all logic functions a LUT can potentially implement. Once a value is computed from a LUT, it often is desirable to store it. These state elements have dedicated clocking paths to help minimize clock skew. By chaining together LUTs and storing results in flip flops, FPGAs can implement any number of functions and computation limited only by the number of resources of the device and its delay.