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Microwave field-effect transistors _ theory, design and applications
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Microwave Field-effect Transistors Theory- Design and Applications (3rd Edition)
Scitech Publishing. The first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in , capable of operating up to 60 MHz. Indium electroplated into the depressions formed the collector and emitter. It was a near pocket-sized radio featuring 4 transistors and one germanium diode. The industrial design was outsourced to the Chicago firm of Painter, Teague and Petertil.
It was initially released in one of four different colours: black, bone white, red, and gray. Other colours were to shortly follow. The first "production" all-transistor car radio was developed by Chrysler and Philco corporations and it was announced in the April 28th edition of the Wall Street Journal.
Chrysler had made the all-transistor car radio, Mopar model HR, available as an option starting in fall for its new line of Chrysler and Imperial cars which first hit the dealership showroom floors on October 21, The first working silicon transistor was developed at Bell Labs on January 26, by Morris Tanenbaum. The first commercial silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in This was the work of Gordon Teal , an expert in growing crystals of high purity, who had previously worked at Bell Labs.
Semiconductor companies initially focused on junction transistors in the early years of the semiconductor industry. However, the junction transistor was a relatively bulky device that was difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited it to a number of specialised applications. Field-effect transistors FETs were theorized as potential alternatives to junction transistors, but researchers could not get FETs to work properly, largely due to the troublesome surface state barrier that prevented the external electric field from penetrating into the material.
In the s, Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla investigated the surface properties of silicon semiconductors at Bell Labs, where he proposed a new method of semiconductor device fabrication , coating a silicon wafer with an insulating layer of silicon oxide so that electricity could reliably penetrate to the conducting silicon below, overcoming the surface states that prevented electricity from reaching the semiconducting layer.
This is known as surface passivation , a method that became critical to the semiconductor industry as it later made possible the mass-production of silicon integrated circuits. Transistors are the key active components in practically all modern electronics. Many thus consider the transistor to be one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. The MOSFET metal—oxide—semiconductor field-effect transistor , also known as the MOS transistor, is by far the most widely used transistor, used in applications ranging from computers and electronics  to communications technology such as smartphones.
Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged known as discrete MOS transistors every year,  the vast majority of transistors are now produced in integrated circuits often shortened to IC , microchips or simply chips , along with diodes , resistors , capacitors and other electronic components , to produce complete electronic circuits.
A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor , as of , can use as many as 3 billion transistors MOSFETs. The MOS transistor is the most widely manufactured device in history. The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device. Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical system to control that same function.
The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals. This property is called gain.
It can produce a stronger output signal, a voltage or current, which is proportional to a weaker input signal; that is, it can act as an amplifier. Alternatively, the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch , where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements. There are two types of transistors, which have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit.
A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base , collector , and emitter. A small current at the base terminal that is, flowing between the base and the emitter can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor , the terminals are labeled gate , source , and drain , and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain. The image represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit.
Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base.
Because internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode, a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. The amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from, and is referred to as V BE.
Transistors are commonly used in digital circuits as electronic switches which can be either in an "on" or "off" state, both for high-power applications such as switched-mode power supplies and for low-power applications such as logic gates. Important parameters for this application include the current switched, the voltage handled, and the switching speed, characterised by the rise and fall times.
In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base voltage rises, the emitter and collector currents rise exponentially. The collector voltage drops because of reduced resistance from collector to emitter. If the voltage difference between the collector and emitter were zero or near zero , the collector current would be limited only by the load resistance light bulb and the supply voltage.
This is called saturation because current is flowing from collector to emitter freely. When saturated, the switch is said to be on. Providing sufficient base drive current is a key problem in the use of bipolar transistors as switches. The transistor provides current gain, allowing a relatively large current in the collector to be switched by a much smaller current into the base terminal. The ratio of these currents varies depending on the type of transistor, and even for a particular type, varies depending on the collector current.
In the example light-switch circuit shown, the resistor is chosen to provide enough base current to ensure the transistor will be saturated. In a switching circuit, the idea is to simulate, as near as possible, the ideal switch having the properties of open circuit when off, short circuit when on, and an instantaneous transition between the two states. Parameters are chosen such that the "off" output is limited to leakage currents too small to affect connected circuitry, the resistance of the transistor in the "on" state is too small to affect circuitry, and the transition between the two states is fast enough not to have a detrimental effect.
The common-emitter amplifier is designed so that a small change in voltage V in changes the small current through the base of the transistor; the transistor's current amplification combined with the properties of the circuit means that small swings in V in produce large changes in V out. Various configurations of single transistor amplifier are possible, with some providing current gain, some voltage gain, and some both. From mobile phones to televisions , vast numbers of products include amplifiers for sound reproduction , radio transmission , and signal processing.
Microwave field-effect transistors _ theory, design and applications - Ghent University Library
The first discrete-transistor audio amplifiers barely supplied a few hundred milliwatts, but power and audio fidelity gradually increased as better transistors became available and amplifier architecture evolved. Modern transistor audio amplifiers of up to a few hundred watts are common and relatively inexpensive. Before transistors were developed, vacuum electron tubes or in the UK "thermionic valves" or just "valves" were the main active components in electronic equipment.
The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace vacuum tubes in most applications are.
Hence, a particular transistor may be described as silicon, surface-mount, BJT, n—p—n, low-power, high-frequency switch. A popular way to remember which symbol represents which type of transistor is to look at the arrow and how it is arranged. The field-effect transistor , sometimes called a unipolar transistor , uses either electrons in n-channel FET or holes in p-channel FET for conduction.
The four terminals of the FET are named source , gate , drain , and body substrate.
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