Manual Muscle Foods: Meat Poultry and Seafood Technology

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Poultry thighs and drumsticks have higher cooking losses compared with breast meat. Poultry thighs and drumsticks have more Type I fibers, more fat, and more connective tissue. Meat with a greater amount of fat will have higher cooking loss because of the percentage of fat lost during cooking. Also, there is proportionately less functional protein available for water binding. Because poultry thigh and drumsticks have more oxidative type fibers, they also have more myoglobin and mitochondria. The myoglobin is a heme protein containing iron.

Poultry thighs and drumsticks have a stronger flavor compared with the breast muscle, which is largely attributed to the iron content of the muscle and fat composition McKee, Slow-twitch muscles Type I have been reported to contain more collagen, which binds muscle fibers, resulting in less tender meat Joo et al. However, in cattle breeds with faster glycolytic metabolism, the most tender meat muscles are the most oxidative Type I , which is partially explained by the higher protein turnover and associated proteolytic activity in the oxidative fibers Picard et al.

In cattle, increasing the proportion of slow-twitch Type I fibers improved tenderness.

Muscle structure and composition

In general, the mean diameter of muscle fibers is negatively correlated with flesh firmness in fish. Fish red muscle contains more lipids, a larger quantity of myoglobin, more collagen, and greater glycogen content than white muscle. As tuna cooking temperature increases, the shear force of red muscle became progressively greater than that of white muscle even though the mechanical resistance of collagen decreased.

In contrast, trout red muscle had less mechanical resistance than white muscle after cooking, suggesting variability among species Xiong et al. In fresh and smoked Atlantic salmon and in fresh brown trout, firmness decreases as fiber size increased and fiber density decreased Bugeon et al. The former has a higher concentration of lactate and subsequent rapid pH decline in the early postmortem period due to their higher glycolytic capacity, which increases the incidence of PSE pork production Ryu and Kim, Pork that is PSE results from a rapid pH decline during rigor mortis while the muscle temperature is still high.

It has increased drip loss and a lighter color when compared with normal pork.

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Also, pigs that are susceptible to stress have more Type II anaerobic fibers than other non-susceptible breeds McKee, Cold shortening results from the rapid chilling of carcasses immediately after slaughter before the glycogen in the muscle has been converted to lactic acid. Red meat is more susceptible to cold shortening than meat with predominantly white muscle fibers Savell et al. Because white muscle fibers tend to have higher amounts of glycogen, they experience a more rapid drop in pH earlier in the rigor process. This is especially relevant with pork. Rapid or blast chilling is effective at reducing the incidence of PSE pork, but extreme chilling systems may cause cold shortening and toughness due to differences between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass darker color when compared with the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass lighter color Choi and Oh, Meat that is DFD is produced from animals that have experienced a period of sustained stress that has depleted its muscle glycogen.

Meats that are DFD have firm texture, darker color, and sometimes an off-flavor Wulf et al. They are more likely to occur in beef and lamb compared with other species due to their greater proportion of Type I and IIA muscle fibers. Kim et al. Broilers and turkeys have proportionally more Type II fibers thereby influencing rigor mortis development and their susceptibility to stress. In stress susceptible birds, ultimate pH values 5. Since muscles reach an acidic pH while the carcass temperatures are still high, extensive protein denaturation occurs that results in the production of PSE meat in breast meat but not in leg meat.

Post-mortem glycolysis takes place more rapidly in white muscles such as breast meat compared with red muscles from the legs since white muscles are highly glycolytic Feiner, A pink color defect can occur in fully cooked uncured no nitrate or nitrite is added chicken and turkey breast meat.

The interaction of myoglobin with ligands and small biomolecules have been considered as major endogenous factors that contribute to the pink color defect, but water contamination can also be the cause of this defect Joseph et al.

The greater thermostability of turkey myoglobin and the high pH of turkey meat compared with mammalian animals contribute to the pink color defect. White striping occurs due to variability in the thickness of myosepta that contain different amounts of lipid. White striping appears as white striations that are parallel to muscle fibers on the surface of the pectoralis major muscle.

Broiler breast meat with white striping has greater drip and cooking loss and less marinade absorption Petracci et al. Woody breast meat is a more recently identified myopathy that is characterized in broilers as hardened areas with pale ridge-like bulges at both the caudal and cranial regions of the breast that is often accompanied by white striping Sihvo et al. Woody breast meat has less marinade uptake, greater cook loss, reduced yields, and lighter color than normal meat.

It is expressed as severe fiber hypertrophy with an increased proportion of large and abnormal fibers Petracci et al. This is due to strong rigor tensions and stress or handling of the fish or meat that cause the intervening threads of connective tissue to break, which causes slits or holes to appear in the fillet. Some species are more susceptible to gaping than others. Round fish like cod Gadhus morhua , and salmon Salmo salar generally gape more than flat fish. Some species, such as catfish never gape. The redness is theorized to occur due to the depletion of glycogen prior to harvest, muscle protein denaturation, and hemolysis Bosworth et al.

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There are both similarities and differences between edible flesh from mammals, poultry, and fish with respect to muscle fiber type, rigor mortis, meat quality, and quality defects that occur. Some of these differences are more related to muscle fiber type than actual species. There are many other differences and similarities that we would have liked to discuss, including calpains and cathepsins, processed meats, sensory differences, etc.

Though this paper did not make a clear and final distinction on the definition of meat, the differences in muscle fibers alone and the impact that they have on meat quality and our eating experience is remarkable. The amount of knowledge that is known about all of these food animals and the edible flesh that they produce is also vast and continuing to increase. It is a privilege to conduct research on any or all of these animals and food products.

Xue Zhang is a Ph. Zhang received her B. Owens conducts research to evaluate the effects of preslaughter environmental conditions and processing techniques on muscle metabolism and meat quality of poultry. Her research has a strong emphasis on evaluating production and processing factors affecting poultry meat quality, including tenderness, water-holding capacity, color, and sensory attributes.

Her recent research has focused on quality of meat from broilers in big bird market programs, including muscle defects such as white striping and woody breast and issues with meat texture. Since coming to Mississippi State University, he has developed five courses that focus on hands-on experiences and real-world examples that he has experienced through interaction with food companies. Real-world examples are related to topics taught through food chemistry, instrumental analysis, and sensory testing principles.

His research focuses on sensory science, meat processing poultry, beef, pork, and catfish , meat quality, flavor chemistry, proteomics, and statistical methods. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Muscle foods: Meat, poultry and seafood technology

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Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

Article Contents. Definition of Meat.

Muscle Foods. Muscle Fiber Classification. Rigor Mortis. Meat Quality Measurements. Meat Quality Defects. Literature Cited. Meat: the edible flesh from mammals only or does it include poultry, fish, and seafood?

Muscle foods : meat, poultry and seafood technology

Xue Zhang. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Casey M. Wes Schilling. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Historically, meat science research has been focused on the edible flesh from mammals. Table 1. Open in new tab. Table 2. White color. Open in new tab Download slide. Search ADS. Limb myosin heavy chain isoproteins and muscle fiber types in the adult goat Capra hircus.

Effects of transport water temperature, aerator type, and oxygen level on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fillet quality. Histochemistry and growth characteristics of bovine semitendinosus muscle exposed to recombinant bovine somatotropin rbST. Muscle fiber characteristics, myofibrillar protein isoforms, and meat quality. Carcass performance, muscle fiber, meat quality, and sensory quality characteristics of crossbred pigs with different live weights.

Korean J. Variation of chicken technological meat quality in relation to genotype and preslaughter stress conditions.